Chapter 8 ADM Guidelines and Techniques
A good business scenario represents a significant business need or problem and enables vendors to understand the value of a solution to the customer. A good business scenario is also “SMART”:
- Specific, by defining what needs to be done
- Measurable, through clear metrics for success
- Actionable, by clearly segmenting the problem and providing the basis for a solution
- Realistic, in that the problem can be solved within the bounds of physical reality, time, and cost constraints
- Time-bound, in that there is a clear statement of when the opportunity expires.
- Gap Analysis: A key step in validating an architecture is to consider what may have been forgotten. The architecture must support all the essential information processing needs of the organization. The most critical source of gaps that should be considered is stakeholder concerns that have not been addressed in prior architectural work.
The determination of interoperability occurs throughout the ADM:
- In Phase A: Architecture Vision, the nature and security considerations of information and service exchanges are found using business scenarios.
- In Phase B: Business Architecture, information and service exchanges are defined in business terms.
- In Phase C: Data Architecture, the content of information exchanges is detailed using the corporate data and/or information exchange model.
- In Phase C: Application Architecture, the ways that applications are to share information and services are specified.
- In Phase D: Technology Architecture, appropriate technical mechanisms to permit information and service exchanges are specified.
- In Phase E: Opportunities & Solutions, actual solutions are selected.
- In Phase F: Migration Planning, interoperability is implemented logically.
Business Transformation Readiness Assessment: The recommended activities are:
- Determine the readiness factors that will impact the organization
- Present the readiness factors using maturity models
- Assess the readiness factors, and determine the readiness factor ratings
- Assess the risks for each readiness factor and identify improvement actions to mitigate the risk
- Document the findings into the Capability Assessment and later incorporate the actions into the Implementation and Migration Plan in Phases E and F
Risk Management: is a technique used to mitigate risk when implementing an architecture project. There are two levels of risk that should be considered:
- Initial Level of Risk: Risk categorization prior to determining and implementing mitigating actions. Residual Level of Risk: Risk categorization after implementation of mitigating actions.
The recommended process for managing risk consists of the following activities:
- Risk classification
- Risk identification
- Initial risk assessment
- Risk mitigation and residual risk assessment
- Risk monitoring
- Capability-Based Planning: Capability-Based Planning is a business planning technique that focuses on business outcomes. It is business-driven and business-led and combines the requisite efforts of all lines of business to achieve the desired capability. It accommodates most, if not all, of the corporate business models and is especially useful in organizations where a latent capability to respond (e.g., an emergency preparedness unit) is required and the same resources are involved in multiple capabilities. Often the need for these capabilities is discovered and refined using business scenarios.
Chapter 9 Architecture Governance
Architecture Governance includes the following:
- Implementing a system of controls over the creation and monitoring of all architectural components and activities, to ensure the effective introduction, implementation, and evolution of architectures within the organization
- Implementing a system to ensure compliance with internal and external standards and regulatory obligations
- Establishing processes that support effective management of the above processes within agreed parameters
- Developing practices that ensure accountability to a clearly identified stakeholder community, both inside and outside the organization
What is Governance? Governance is about ensuring that business is conducted properly. It is less about overt control and strict adherence to rules, and more about effective usage of resources to ensure sustainability of an organization’s strategic objectives. The following characteristics, adapted from Corporate Governance (Naidoo, 2002), are used in the TOGAF standard to highlight both the value and necessity for governance as an approach to be adopted within organizations and their dealings with all involved parties:
- Discipline: All involved parties will have a commitment to adhere to procedures, processes, and authority structures established by the organization.
- Transparency: All actions implemented, and their decision support will be available for inspection by authorized organization and provider parties.
- Independence: All processes, decision-making, and mechanisms used will be established to minimize or avoid potential conflicts of interest.
- Accountability: Identifiable groups within the organization – e.g., governance boards who take actions or make decisions – are authorized and accountable for their actions.
- Responsibility: Each contracted party is required to act responsibly to the organization and its stakeholders.
- Fairness: All decisions taken, processes used, and their implementation will not be allowed to create unfair advantage to any one party.
Architecture Governance covers the management and control of all aspects of the development and evolution of architectures. It needs to be supported by an Architecture Governance Framework which assists in identifying effective processes so that the business responsibilities associated with Architecture Governance can be elucidated, communicated, and managed effectively.
Key Architecture Governance Processes The following are the key processes:
- 1. Policy Management and Take-On
- 2. Compliance
- 3. Dispensation
- 4. Monitoring and Reporting
- 5. Business Control
- 6. Environment Management
Architecture Governance is beneficial because it:
- Links IT processes, resources, and information to organizational strategies and objectives
- Integrates and institutionalizes IT best practices
- Aligns with industry frameworks such as COBIT (planning and organizing, acquiring and implementing, delivering and supporting, and monitoring IT performance)
- Enables the organization to take full advantage of its information, infrastructure, and hardware/software assets
- Protects the underlying digital assets of the organization
- Supports regulatory and best practice requirements such as auditability, security, responsibility, and accountability
What are the Key Success Factors when establishing Architecture Governance? It is important to consider the following to ensure a successful approach to Architecture Governance, and effective management of the Architecture Contract:
- Establishment and operation of best practices for submission, adoption, re-use, reporting, and retirement of architecture policies, procedures, roles, skills, organizational structures, and support services
- Establishment of correct organizational responsibilities and structures to support Architecture Governance processes and reporting requirements
- Integration of tools and processes to facilitate take-up of processes (both procedural and cultural)
- Management of criteria for control of Architecture Governance processes, dispensations, compliance assessments, Service Level Agreements (SLAs), and Operational Level Agreements (OLAs)
- Meeting internal and external requirements for effectiveness, efficiency, confidentiality, integrity, availability, compliance, and reliability of Architecture Governance-related information, services, and processes
The Architecture Board is typically made responsible, and accountable, for achieving some or all the following goals:
- Providing the basis for all decision-making about changes to the architectures
- Consistency between sub-architectures
- Establishing targets for re-use of components
- Flexibility of enterprise architecture; to meet business needs and utilize new technologies
- Enforcement of Architecture Compliance
- Improving the maturity level of architecture discipline within the organization
- Ensuring that the discipline of architecture-based development is adopted
- Supporting a visible escalation capability for out-of-bounds decisions
The Meaning of Architecture Compliance:
Chapter 10 Views, Viewpoints, and Stakeholders
OK Passed the Exam. How was it. I cannot tell you what the questions was and frankly I do not quite remember them. But here are my thoughts about the exam.
- You must go through the training course (which is free online, do all the exercises as there are concepts that are not in the slides or materials. And do the DYI exercises. I personally did them maybe 4 or 5 times. And I took the 3.8 online free course though that might confuse you as there changes between 3.8 and 4.0 like flowVars which is gone completely.
- I would recommend going quickly over the mule runtime documentation. And just trying to build a practical example.
- An understanding of Java and Spring either MVC or Boot frameworks would help but not necessary as it will help you understand how flows are translated into Spring code then compiled
- If you have time on your hands, go to git hub and download the free Sample for MuleSoft from MuleSoft and the open source code. Yes, that is an overkill.
- Now how about the questions, They are mostly tricky questions, most of the answers are extremely similar. You have to consider them thoroughly and find the best answer. Many are very simply minor colon, or semi-colon difference. Very low level syntax error so yeah if you have special glasses for the computer use them!.
- If you are taking the course from Home make sure you turn off your cell phone, phone etc. and do not speak to yourself. And yes you will not be able to use your big screen TV, you will be limited to the laptop screen.
- Hope this helps. I wish I can say it was easy I answered it in almost halftime with reviews, but I was really annoyed by the questions and every question is just trying to trick you.